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Protagoras (Greek: ) (ca. 490420 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and is numbered as one of the sophists by Plato. In his dialogue Protagoras, Plato credits him with having invented the role of the professional sophist or teacher of virtue. Protagoras was born in Abdera, Thrace, in Ancient Greece. "In Plato's Protagoras, before the company of Socrates, Prodicus, and Hippias, he states that he is old enough to be the father of any of them. This suggests a date of not later than 490 B.C." In the Meno (91e) he is said to have died at about the age of seventy after forty years as a practicing Sophist. His death, then, may be assumed to have occurred circa 420." He was well-known in Athens and became a friend of Pericles. Plutarch relates a story in which the two spend a whole day discussing an interesting point of legal responsibility, that probably involved a more philosophical question of causation. "In an athletic contest a man had been accidentally hit and killed with a javelin. Was his death to be attributed to the javelin itself, to the man who threw it, or to the authorities responsible for the conduct of the games?" Protagoras was also renowned as a teacher who addressed subjects connected to virtue and political life. He was especially involved in the question of whether virtue could be taught, a commonplace issue of 5th Century B.C. Greece (and related to modern readers through Plato's dialogue). Rather than educators who offered specific, practical training in rhetoric and public speaking, Protagoras attempted to formulate a reasoned understanding, on a very general level, of a wide range of human phenomena (for example, language and education). He also seems to have had an interest in orthoepeia, or the correct use of words (a topic more strongly associated with his fellow-sophist Prodicus).
His most famous saying is: "Man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are, and of things which are not, that they are not" Like many fragments of the Presocratics, this phrase has been passed down to us without any context, and its meaning is open to interpretation. Plato ascribes relativism to Protagoras and uses his predecessor's teachings as a foil for his own commitment to objective and transcendent realities and values. Plato also ascribes to Protagoras an early form of phenomenalism, in which what is or appears for a single individual is true or real for that individual.
Protagoras was a proponent of agnosticism. In his lost work, On the Gods, he wrote: "Concerning the gods, I have no means of knowing whether they exist or not or of what sort they may be, because of the obscurity of the subject, and the brevity of human life" (80B4 DK).
Very few fragments from Protagoras have survived, though he is known to have written several different works: Antilogiae and Truth. The latter is cited by Plato, and was known alternatively as 'The Throws' (a wrestling term referring to the attempt to floor an opponent). It began with the "man the measure" pronouncement.
The Protagoras crater on the Moon was named in his honor.

Protagoras and the scientific method

Even though Protagoras was a contemporary of Socrates, the philosopher of Abdera is considered a presocratic thinker. He followed the Ionian tradition that distinguishes the School of Abdera. The distinctive note of this tradition is criticism, a systematic discussion that can be identified as "presocratic dialectic", an alternative to the Aristotelian demonstrative method which, according to Karl Popper, has the fault of being dogmatic. The main contribution of Protagoras was perhaps his method of finding a better argument by discarding the less viable one. This is known as "Antilogies", and consists of two premises; the first is "Before any uncertainty two opposite theses can validly be confronted", the second is its complement: the need to "strengthen the weaker argument".
Protagoras knew that the less appealing argument could hide the best answer, which is why he stated that it was constantly necessary to strengthen the weakest argument. Having been born before Socrates himself, this progressive viewpoint in the development of consensual truth could conceivably have contributed to the progressive styles of many of the other great minds which followed him. His most recent defender is Joseph Margolis, especially in the latter's The Truth About Relativism (Blackwell's, 1991).


protagoras in Bengali: প্রোতাগোরাস
protagoras in Bosnian: Protagora
protagoras in Bulgarian: Протагор
protagoras in Catalan: Protàgores
protagoras in Czech: Prótagorás z Abdér
protagoras in Danish: Protagoras
protagoras in German: Protagoras
protagoras in Modern Greek (1453-): Πρωταγόρας
protagoras in Spanish: Protágoras
protagoras in Esperanto: Protagoro
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protagoras in Persian: پروتاگوراس
protagoras in French: Protagoras
protagoras in Scottish Gaelic: Protagoras
protagoras in Galician: Protágoras de Abdera
protagoras in Korean: 프로타고라스
protagoras in Croatian: Protagora
protagoras in Icelandic: Prótagóras
protagoras in Italian: Protagora
protagoras in Hebrew: פרוטגורס
protagoras in Latin: Protagoras
protagoras in Lithuanian: Protagoras
protagoras in Hungarian: Prótagorasz
protagoras in Macedonian: Протагора од Абдера
protagoras in Dutch: Protagoras
protagoras in Japanese: プロタゴラス
protagoras in Norwegian: Protagoras
protagoras in Polish: Protagoras
protagoras in Portuguese: Protágoras de Abdera
protagoras in Romanian: Protagoras
protagoras in Russian: Протагор
protagoras in Slovak: Protagoras
protagoras in Serbian: Протагора
protagoras in Serbo-Croatian: Protagora
protagoras in Finnish: Protagoras
protagoras in Swedish: Protagoras
protagoras in Turkish: Protagoras
protagoras in Ukrainian: Протаґор
protagoras in Urdu: پروتاگورس
protagoras in Chinese: 普罗塔哥拉
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